The tendency to look for some outside group to blame for our misfortunes is certainly common and it is often sustained by social pressures. (1)There seems to be little doubt that one of the principal causes of prejudice is fear: in particular the fear that the interests of our own group are going to be endangered by the actions of another. This is less likely to be the case in a stable, relatively unchanging society in which the members of different social and occupational groups know what to expect of each other, and know what to expect for themselves. In times of rapid social and economic change, however, new occupations and new social roles appear, and people start looking jealously at each other to see whether their own group is being left behind.
When a community begins to feel unsure of its future, it becomes especially liable to turn in upon itself, to imagine that surrounding groups are threatening and hostile. At a time like this, distorted ideas about the other community are readily believed and are passed on as statements of fact. One of the tragic things about intercommunal strife is that both parties quickly find themselves behaving the worst about each other. And, at the same time, by a process which we might call ‘moral rationalisation’, each of the antagonists insists ----- and believes ----- that its own actions are inspired by lofty ideals, even when they are really acting out of pure self-interest. (2)To a third party, neutral to the dispute, it may seem obvious that both are behaving unreasonably; but when one's emotions are involved, and especially the emotion of fear, it is extremely difficult to remain rational.
Once prejudice develops, it is hard to stop, because there are often social forces at work which actively encourage unfounded attitudes of hostility and fear towards other groups. One such force is education: we all know that children can be taught history in such a way as to perpetuate old feuds and old prejudices between racial and political groups. Another social influence that has to be reckoned with is the pressure of public opinion. People often think and act differently in groups from the way they would do as individuals. It takes a considerable effort of will, and often calls for great courage, to stand out against one's fellows and insist that they are wrong.
[設問2] ‘prejudice’ は、どのような社会的状況で生じているか。また、それを字助長する2つの社会的（影響）力として何が指摘されているか。60字以内で説明しなさい。