During my 27 years as director of the Michigan Department of Corrections, I have learned more than I care to know about murder. I have reviewed the grisly details of many homicides. I have come to know well many murderers who were serving out their adult lives in prisons.
Some of these people, (a)(1. for example 2. in my opinion 3. as a whole), may deserve to die for their crimes. But I have come to the conclusion that we, (b)(1. for 2. like 3. as) a civilized society, should not kill them.
We should not because the death penalty fails the two tests (c)(1. against 2. in 3. for) which any just sanction must be measured.
The first test is that the sanction must be in our public self–interest, which in this instance means that we protect our own lives by taking the life of another. In my profession, public protection is my primary responsibility. (d)(1. However 2. Therefore 3 For instance), if I had (1) for believing that the execution of convicted murderers saved the lives of innocent people, I would be obligated to (2) capital punishment.
But capital punishment does not protect. Few issues in criminal justice have seen as much research over the last 40 years as the (3) impact of executions, and there is no issue I am aware of in which the balance of evidence weighs so heavily on the negative side. There is even the possibility that some murderers see execution as a martyrdom which will provide a dramatic end to a life of (4) for themselves and others.
It is sometimes said that even though an execution may not deter others, it (e)(1. at least 2. at last 3. at most) prevents the (5) of the murderer in a few years to kill again. In Michigan, which has not executed anyone in nearly a century and a half, we have no record of any person commuted from a sentence of first-degree murder, who repeated that crime. First-degree murderers who do not die in prison serve an average of 25 years before release, and their record thereafter is (6). To argue that we need capital punishment for our own safety will not (7) scrutiny; life imprisonment is adequate for that purpose.
The second proper test of any penalty (8) by a civilized society is that it can be applied (f)(1. for 2. with 3. on) assurance of justice and fairness. Capital punishment clearly fails this test as well.
It fails a test of social justice (g)(1. in spite of the fact that 2. in that 3. because of) it has been disproportionately applied to minorities. This (9) aspect of the death penalty application remains a problem even today. A recent study in our own state shows that both the race of the offender and the victim are factors in determining whether a person will be convicted of a first-degree murder or of a lesser crime. Research in other states has (h)(1.consistently 2. negatively 3. barely) shown a similar pattern of racial discrimination in (10) the death penalty.
There also is the ever–present possibility––and over time the certainty––of the (i)(1. probable injustice 2. imminent injustice 3.ultimate injustice): the socially approved execution of a person who happens to be innocent. (j)(1. Despite 2. Even 3. But for) all judicial safeguards, some persons serving prison terms for murder in the first degree have been subsequently found to have been wrongfully convicted. At that point a prison term can at least be abridged, but a life cannot be (11).
I am convinced capital punishment fails all proper (k)(1.criteria 2. instruction 3. judges) of an effective and just response to homicide. But there is yet a strong reason why we, as civilized people, should not kill even the most hateful and undeserving of criminals. That is the brutalizing effect which the death penalty has on the public which (12) it. (13), unnecessary killing cheapens the value of human life.
(l)(1. Even 2. Now 3. Once) we recognize that the death penalty is neither a just nor effective response to murder, then only vengeance is left. Several years ago, Canada’s Pierre Trudeau asked this question: “Are we so (14) as a society, so lacking in respect for ourselves, so lacking in hope for human betterment, so socially (14) that we are ready to accept vengeance as a penal philosophy?”
I am proud that Michigan continues to answer no to that question.
[設問1] (1)～(14) に下から選んで適当な単語を入れなさい。
hatred imposes assigning grounds bankrupt disturbing endorse restored exemplary deliberate deterrent freeing stand exacted
[設問2] (a)～(l) の中から正しい表現を選びなさい。
a b c d e
f g h i j
[設問3] (1)～(7) の中から正しい表現を選びなさい。
(1) What is the occupation of the writer?
1. He is a reporter for a Michigan newspaper.
2. He is director of a state prison system in America.
3. He is a Protestant minister.
4. He is a spokesman for a human rights group.
(2) Which of the following is not true of the author?
1. He is in favor of restoring capital punishment in Michigan.
2. He has met many people convicted of first-degree murder.
3. He believes that some people confined in prison for murder may really be innocent.
4. He believes that some murderers deserve to die for their crimes.
(3) Some people believe that the execution of convicted murderers can save the lives of innocent people. The author claims that
1. research proves that idea to be false.
2. murderes released from prison often kill again.
3. the balance of evidence weighs heavily in favor of that idea.
4. the record of murderers released from prison in Michigan supports the idea.
(4) The article says that one factor in determining whether a person is convicted of first-degree murder is
1. the presence of witness.
2. the race of the people involved.
3. whether or not the person is insane.
4. whether a weapon was found at the scene of the crime.
(5) What does the author feel is the most unforgivable human action?
1. The conviction for murder of innocent people.
2. Life imprisonment of innocent people.
3. Discrimination against people on the basis of race or creed.
4. The socially sanctioned execution of an innocent person.
(6) Which word is not a synonym for “vengeance”?
(7) In the passage, quoted, when Pierre Trudeau asks if society is bankrupt, he is referring to
1. the budget deficit.
2. social morality
3. banking practices.
4. social welfare.
1 grounds 2 endorse
3 deterrent 4 hatred
5 freeing 6 exemplary
7 stand 8 exacted
9 disturbing 10 assigning
11 restored 12 imposed
13 deliberate 14 bankrupt
a 2 b 3 c 1 d 2 e 1
f 2 g 2 h 1 i 3 j 1
k 1 l 3